Papua New Guinea
Various groups of tribesmen carry their back—staff/dancing shields through the streets of Goroka. Each is a tall bulky banner (standard) that may be three or four times taller than the carrier. It is made of hammered bark cloth that is painted or woven with symbolic designs of the tribe's ceremonial religious or cultural traditions. The bark is then attached to the cumbersome structure. A dancer must be assisted in its removal from his back. Some clans, such as the Wantoat, have back staffs ten meters or more.